STEEL. 93 which, will not sensibly harden by being quenched in water while at a red heat, shall be called ingot iron. (4) That all such compounds, when they will from any cause so harden, shall be called ingot steel. Needless to say, these definitions have long since been forgotten, for they ignored current usage. They are given here because the terms are encountered occasionally in books, and are used to some extent abroad. Strictly speaking, some mention must be made of hardening in a complete definition, for it is possible to make steel in a puddling furnace by taking out the viscous mass before it has been completely decarburized; but this crude method is a relic of the past, and may be neglected in practical discussion. No attempt will be made to give an ironclad formula, but the following statements portray the current usage in our country: (1) By the term wrought-iron is meant the product of the puddle furnace or the sinking fire. (2) By the term steel is meant the product of the cementation process, or the malleable compounds of iron made in the crucible, the converter, or the open-hearth furnace. This nomenclature is not founded on the resolutions of committees. It is the natural outgrowth of business, and has been made mandatory by the highest of all statutes—the law of common sense. It is the universal system among engineers, not only in America, but in England and in France. In other lands the authority of famous names, backed by conservatism and governmental prerogative, has fixed for the present, in metallurgical literature, a • list of terms which is not only deficient, but fundamentally false.